Studien und wissenschaftliche Paper zu Wölfen

Auf ein interessantes Buch oder Internetseite über Wölfe gestolpert? Dann her damit!
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Dr_R.Goatcabin
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Re: Studien und wissenschaftliche Paper zu Wölfen

Beitrag von Dr_R.Goatcabin » 25. Feb 2019, 16:52

Wichtige Ergänzung für alle geneigten Leser (falls sie es nicht selbst längst wissen): wer über keinen Zugang zu Abos für Journals über seine Uni oder den Arbeitsplatz verfügt, sei mit Sci-Hub ganz gut beraten (sci-hub.tw funktioniert soweit problemlos). Ich hoffe, der Admin zensiert mir den guten Rat hier nicht .... ;)
"Though this be madness, yet there is method in 't ..."

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Dr_R.Goatcabin
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Re: Studien und wissenschaftliche Paper zu Wölfen

Beitrag von Dr_R.Goatcabin » 12. Apr 2019, 11:19

Wieder neuer Artikel mit I. Reinhardt als Co-Autorin.


Arbieu et al. (2019): Attitudes towards returning wolves (Canis lupus) in Germany: Exposure, information sources and trust matter. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2019.03.027. (Zugang https://sci-hub.se/10.1016/j.biocon.2019.03.027)

Abstract
Understanding how exposure and information affect public attitudes towards returning large carnivores in Europe is critical for human-carnivore coexistence, especially for developing efficient and de-escalating communication strategies. The ongoing recolonization of wolves (Canis lupus) in Germany provides a unique opportunity to test the role of different information sources and trust on people's attitudes towards wolves. We conducted a phone survey (n = 1250) and compared country-wide attitudes towards wolves with attitudes in a specific region where wolves initially recolonized and have been present since 2000. In particular, we investigate the relationship between information sources, trust and people's attitudes while accounting for factors like knowledge, exposure and socio-cultural determinants of respondents. We found significant differences in attitudes and knowledge about wolves as well as in the use and frequency of information sources between the two population samples. Higher knowledge, information from books and films, science-based information, and higher trust in information sources related positively with positive attitudes towards wolves. Comparatively, information from press or TV news was associated with more negative attitudes. Providing science-based information to the public and building trust in information is likely to be one measure, among others, to dampen extreme attitudes and improve people's appreciation of costs and benefits of human-carnivore coexistence. Management of conflictual situations emerging from large carnivore recolonization in Europe and beyond should consider incorporating assessments of people's use of and trust in information in addition to existing tools to pave new ways for constructive human-carnivore coexistence.
Warum musst ich bei dem höheren Anteil von"very well informed" Leuten in Wolfsgebieten trotzdem an Schäfer denken, die kniehohe Elektrozäune ohne Strom aufstellen, hm ..
"Though this be madness, yet there is method in 't ..."

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Dr_R.Goatcabin
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Re: Studien und wissenschaftliche Paper zu Wölfen

Beitrag von Dr_R.Goatcabin » 30. Apr 2019, 21:08

Eher nur für Wildbiologen und Veterinäre interessant, aber immerhin .. deutsche Wölfe, wild & frei. ^^ Für 2019 gibt es inzwischen schon wieder mehrere neue Paper über Wölfe, aber für (selbst den interessierten deutschen) Laien zumeist nicht relevant.
(Helminth = Darmwurm)

Bindke et al. (2019): Helminth infections of wild European gray wolves (Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758) in Lower Saxony, Germany, and comparison to captive wolves. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-018-6181-3.

Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the endoparasite fauna of wild European gray wolves, which are currently recolonizing Germany. In total, 69 fecal samples of wild wolves were collected in Lower Saxony, Germany, from 2013 to 2015, analyzed by the sedimentation-flotation and McMaster techniques and compared to previous results on captive European Gray wolves living in zoological gardens in Germany. In addition to coproscopy, taeniid-positive samples from wild as well as captive wolves were differentiated by amplification and sequencing of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) gene fragments. Missing Taenia krabbei SSU rRNA reference sequences were generated from two T. krabbei specimens. Overall, 60.87% (42/69) of wild wolve samples were microscopically positive for at least one of seven egg types. Capillaria/Eucoleus spp. showed the highest frequency (31.88% [22/69]), followed by Taeniidae (21.74% [15/69]), Ancylostomatidae (20.29% [14/69]), Alaria alata (15.94% [11/69]), Toxocara canis (13.04% [9/69]), and Toxascaris leonina and Trichuris vulpis (each 5.80% [4/69]). Amplification of SSU rRNA was successful for 7/15 Taeniidae-positive samples from wild and 20/39 samples from captive wolves, revealing T. hydatigena in two and 14 samples, respectively. Taenia krabbei was detected in two further samples of wild and three samples of captive wolves, while for the remaining samples, no differentiation between T. serialis/T. krabbei was possible. Echinococcus spp. were not detected. Sequence comparisons revealed that the SSU rRNA gene fragment was not suitable to differentiate between T. serialis and T. krabbei. Therefore, the use of this fragment alone cannot be recommended for species identification in future studies.
Letzte Worte in Conclusions:
In conclusion, the presented data offer useful informationon the general occurrence of wolf parasites. Further studies arenecessary to elucidate whether the presence of wolves influ-ences the epidemiology of the detected parasites in wildlife, livestock, and companion animals. Based on this study, wolves do not contribute significantly to an increased risk of zoonotic parasite species in Germany.

Dufresnes et al. (2019): Last but not beast: the fall of the Alpine wolves told by historical DNA. DOI: 10.1007/s13364-019-00426-5.

Abstract
The sociopolitical acceptance necessary for the conservation of controversial species requires scientific knowledge that disentangles empirical facts from myth and misinformation. An epitome of such, the gray wolf (Canis lupus) had been eradicated from most of Western Europe by the early twentieth century. However, a few mysteriously re-appeared in the Alps throughout the twentieth century, leading to systematic hunts encouraged by popular folklore and massive waves of panic. These historical events are reminiscent of the hostile context now surrounding the recolonization of the wolf across former ranges. Through historical DNA sequencing of five rare museum specimens shot post-WWII, we tell the true story of these mystery beasts. The oldest ones (1947–1954) were just the very last survivors of an endemic, extremely resilient wolf population, thought to be extinct decades earlier, while recent ones (1978–1990) most likely originated from captivity. This parable reminds that today more than ever, scientific evidence is necessary to conduct an objective societal debate over the management and conservation of controversial species.

Wer ansonsten sich mit Parasiten weiter befassen will, kann sich an seinen Schieber wenden. ^^

Schieber & Štrkolcová (2019): Prevalence of Endoparasites in Carnivores in a Zoo and a Wolves Park in Germany. DOI: 10.2478/fv-2019-0008.

Abstract
Endoparasites have the potential to cause significant health problems in humans and other animals. Consequently, particularly the endoparasites of a zoonotic nature are of great interest to health authorities and scientists. This study investigated the prevalence of different intestinal parasite species of carnivores kept in captivity. Altogether 36 pooled samples of faeces obtained from individual animal enclosures from the Neunkircher Zoo and Wolfspark Werner Freund in Germany were examined. The samples were analysed by means of a flotation concentration method with the use of Faust and KozákMágrová solution. Out of a total of 36 samples, 19 were positive for endoparasites (52.78 %). Furthermore, 13 out of 19 positive samples were protozoans (68.42 %).
"Though this be madness, yet there is method in 't ..."

Wolfs-Theoretiker
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Re: Studien und wissenschaftliche Paper zu Wölfen

Beitrag von Wolfs-Theoretiker » 4. Mai 2019, 23:24

Hallo Dr_R.G.
guten Abend, nur eine kurze Frage.
Allgemein zur Änderung vom Verhalten von Tieren,
nicht speziell nur für Kulturfolger,
sondern über Kojote, Fuchs, Biber oder dem Wolf,
letzteres ist mir teilweise bekannt,
durch einen Film über eine besenderte Wölfsfähe,
welche in Rumänien in der Nähe einer Stadt lebte
und täglich die Stadt aufsuchte um Futter zu beschaffen.
Sie beschafte sich auf der Deponie oder auf ihrem Weg
durch die Stadt Futter, wobei sie immer in Deckung blieb,
also nicht offen, also sie hatte noch Respekt vor Menschen.
Sicherlich wollte sie nicht, daß man mit Steine wirft oder so.
Sie hatte einen Bau mit Welpen außerhalb der Stadt,
welche sie so versorgte und aufzog.
Was die Folgen über mehrer Generationen sein können,
das will ich mal mit wissenschaftlichen Hintergrund wissen.
Gibt es irgendwelche Bücher über die Verhaltens-Vererbung,
oder über Stress-Reduzierung durch Verhaltens-Änderung,
als Grundlage zur Annäherung.
Wenn ich da mal den Titel oder Autor hätte,
das Buch würde ich schon irgendwo auftreiben.
Für eine Antwort, danke im Voraus.

Wolfstheoretiker
"Die Natur betrügt uns nie. Wir sind es immer, die wir uns selbst betrügen." Jean-Jacques Rousseau

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Dr_R.Goatcabin
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Re: Studien und wissenschaftliche Paper zu Wölfen

Beitrag von Dr_R.Goatcabin » 5. Mai 2019, 11:47

Hallo,

.. ich bin mir nicht sicher, wie die Frage gemeint ist. Flucht- und Angriffsverhalten von Tieren ist so tief in der DNA verankert, dass es Jahrhunderte, eher Jahrtausende dauert, bis sich Änderungen durchsetzen, und auch nur dann, wenn sich die Umwelt signifikant so ändert, dass eine Verhaltensanpassung überhaupt wichtig wird. (Gleichzeitig kann Fluchtverhalten relativ schnell abhanden kommen, wenn eine Spezies zum Beispiel auf einer Insel ohne Raubtiere oder sonstige Bedrohungen landet.)
Jedes intelligente Tier passt sich seiner Umwelt an und lernt. Gewöhnung ist das Stichwort; da muss kein Verhalten grundsätzlich geändert werden, um armselig behaarten Zweibeinern und ihren SUV-Blechkisten hier aus dem Wege zu gehen. Jede Krähe in der Stadt ist da vermutlich abgebrühter, als sich der Wolf je trauen wollt.
Da in Rumänien auch leider eine Menge armer Hunde wild umherstreunen, ist die Wahrscheinlichkeit groß, dass man die Fähe eben deswegen für harmlos befand. Ich kenne den Film auch.

Das Ganze ist auch nicht so mein Feld; ich kann da nur auf generelle Einführungsliteratur verweisen. Siehe Kappeler ( viewtopic.php?f=18&t=3060 ) und Berger (The better to eat you with: fear in the animal world. ISBN: 978-0-226-04363-0), wobei Letzterer zwar gut und unterhaltsam geschrieben ist, leider aber nicht ins Deutsche übersetzt wurde. Aber das hast Du im Thread zum Begriff der "Scheu" ja schon gesehen.

.. Oder mal nett am Leibniz-IZW in Berlin (Presseabteilung?) bzw. Wolf-Science-Center in Innsbruck nachfragen. ;)
"Though this be madness, yet there is method in 't ..."

Wolfs-Theoretiker
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Re: Studien und wissenschaftliche Paper zu Wölfen

Beitrag von Wolfs-Theoretiker » 5. Mai 2019, 19:42

Hallo Dr_R.G.

danke für die netten Worte und den Hinweis zu den Büchern.

Grüsse

WT :pleased:
"Die Natur betrügt uns nie. Wir sind es immer, die wir uns selbst betrügen." Jean-Jacques Rousseau

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Dr_R.Goatcabin
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Re: Studien und wissenschaftliche Paper zu Wölfen

Beitrag von Dr_R.Goatcabin » 28. Jun 2019, 20:08

Brandneuer Artikel mit Boitani als Co-Autor.

Mancinelli et al. (2019): Social, behavioural and temporal components of wolf ( Canis lupus ) responses to anthropogenic landscape features in the central Apennines, Italy. DOI: 10.1111/jzo.12708.

Abstract (ziemlich langer :D)
Understanding large carnivores’ behavioural adaptations to habitat modifications is critical for their persistence in human‐modified environments. Based on 10 Global Positioning System‐collared wolves in a protected area of central Italy, we investigated wolf responses to anthropogenic features such as roads and settlements by using Step and Resource Selection Functions. We revealed that responses by wolves to anthropogenic features varied according to behavioural state (travelling vs. resting) and social affiliation (pack members vs. floaters), while accounting for seasonal and circadian effects. During summer, pack members strongly avoided roads and settlements throughout all day, both when travelling and resting, and complemented this response by selecting forested areas and shrublands. Conversely, during fall and winter, pack members relaxed the avoidance towards anthropogenic features by travelling closer to main roads and settlements, but they still selected resting sites farther from anthropogenic features and located them in denser cover and along steeper slopes. Compared to pack members, floaters, when travelling, showed a weaker avoidance of main roads and settlements and did not show any selection pattern towards environmental variables. When resting, contrary to pack members, floaters selected sites closer to main roads and settlements, even though these were still located along denser cover and steeper slopes. Our findings suggest that wolves living in human‐modified landscapes adapt behaviourally to the spatial and temporal distribution of perceived interference by humans and that their response is complementary to the expected seasonal and circadian variation in human activity. These adaptations appear to be aided by the selection of habitat features that enhance security and allow segregation from humans. Maintenance of such habitat characteristics appears of critical importance to ensure the functionality of behavioural adaptations by wolves living in human‐modified landscapes. Understanding large carnivores’ behavioural adaptations to habitat modifications is critical for their persistence in human‐modified environments. Based on 10 GPS‐collared wolves in central Italy, we investigated wolf responses to roads and settlements by using Step and Resource Selection Functions. We revealed that responses by wolves to anthropogenic features varied according to behavioural state (travelling vs. resting) and social affiliation (pack members vs. floaters), while accounting for seasonal, circadian and habitat‐mediated effects. Our findings suggest that wolves living in human‐modified landscapes adapt to the spatial and temporal distribution of perceived interference by humans and that their response is complementary to the expected seasonal and circadian variation in human activity. These adaptations appear to be aided by the selection of habitat features that allow segregation from humans. Maintenance of such habitat characteristics appears of critical importance to ensure the functionality of behavioural adaptations by wolves living in human‐modified landscapes.
"Though this be madness, yet there is method in 't ..."

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