Vucetich et al. (2011): The causes and consequences of partial prey consumption by wolves preying on moose. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-011-1277-0
For a wide range of taxa, partial prey consumption (PPC) is a frequent occurrence. PPC may arise from physiological constraints to gut capacity or digestive rate. Alternatively, PPC may represent an optimal foraging strategy. Assessments that clearly distinguish between these causes are rare and have been conducted only for invertebrate species that are ambush predators with extra-intestinal digestion (e.g., wolf spiders). We present the first strong test for the cause of PPC in a cursorial vertebrate predator with intestinal digestion: wolves (Canis lupus) feeding on moose (Alces alces). Previous theoretical assessments indicate that if PPC represents an optimal foraging strategy and is not caused by physiological limitations, then mean carcass utilization is negatively correlated with mean kill rate and the utilization of individual carcasses is uncorrelated with time between kills. Wolves exhibit exactly this pattern. We explore how the typical portrayal of PPC by wolves has been not only misleading but also detrimental to conservation by promoting negative attitudes toward wolves.
Miller et al. (1985): Surplus killing as exemplified by wolf predation on newborn caribou. https://doi.org/10.1139/z85-045.
We searched for newborn calf carcasses of migratory barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) in June 1982 in the Northwest Territories. On 17 June, we found 34 calves killed by wolves (Canis lupus), clumped in a 3-km2 area. The calves had been killed apparently within minutes of each other and about 24 h before being found. Wolves had not fed on 17 of the carcasses and had only partially eaten the other 17. Ground observations illustrate the speed of and efficiency with which wolves can kill calves: a single wolf killed three calves on one occasion and three and possibly four calves on a second occasion at average kill rates of 1 calf/min, and 1 calf/8 min or 1 calf/6 min between the first and last deaths. We attributed the surplus killing of newborn caribou calves to their high densities and their vulnerability on the calving grounds. We recommend that a distinction be made between "surplus killing" and "excessive killing" by predators.
Kruuk (1972): Surplus killing by carnivores. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1972.tb04087.x
Lack of prey response kann sonst nützlich sein? Noch mehr Fragen ...(1) Observations are reported in which carnivores killed considerably more prey animals than they could possibly eat, and causal and functional aspects of this behaviour are discussed. The species concerned were especially foxes and Spotted hyaenas, and references are quoted about surplus killing by other Canidae, Felidae and Ursidae.
(2) It is argued that satiation in carnivores does not inhibit further catching and killing, but it probably does inhibit searching and hunting. Thus carnivores are able to procure an “easy prey” but normally satiation limits numbers killed.
(3) Many, if not all, carnivores possess behaviour patterns which allow utilization of a kill at a later time, or allow other members of the same social unit or offspring to use the food.
(4) Several prey species showed a lack of anti‐predator reaction under particular climatological circumstances; it is argued that this lack of response usually has survival value. Sometimes anti‐predator behaviour is accidentally made ineffective.
(5) Surplus kills are made possible by (2) and (4) above, and only very rare circumstances give a predator access to so many prey that (3) is ineffective. It is suggested that surplus kills are the consequence of behavioural compromises in both predator and prey to meet opposing environmental requirements.
Ansonsten gut; sowas kam thematisch in meiner Liste noch nicht vor. Jede Menge Weisheit aus Losung lesen (übrigens: hier gibts ein großes Mimimi, wenn der Wolf <1% Schaf im Stuhl hat, während in Italien das gut mal um den Faktor 100 vermehrter sein kann); jede Menge Modellrechnungen zu kill rate und prey density + Verbindung zu Jahreszeit etc. pp, aber Gelegenheitsschnappen war wohl eher noch keinen Artikel wert.